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Accreditation
General
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LIMS and laboratory terminology defined and explained

Accreditation

21 CFR Part 11 of the Code of Federal Regulations #
Deals with the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines on electronic records and electronic signatures. Part 11, as it is commonly called, defines the criteria under which electronic records and electronic signatures are considered to be trustworthy, reliable and equivalent to paper records. Wikipedia.org
ACGIH - The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists #
A professional association of industrial hygienists and practitioners of related professions, with headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio. One of its goals is to advance worker protection by providing timely, objective, scientific information to occupational and environmental health professionals. Wikipedia.org
AIHA - The American Industrial Hygiene Association® #
One of the largest international associations serving the needs of occupational and environmental health and safety professionals practicing industrial hygiene in industry, government, labor, academic institutions, and independent organizations. The organization is devoted to achieving and maintaining the highest professional standards for our members while working with the American Board of Industrial Hygiene to promote certification of industrial hygienists. AIHA administers comprehensive education programs that keep occupational and environmental health and safety professionals current in the field of industrial hygiene, in addition to operating several highly recognized laboratory accreditation programs, based on the highest international standards. These programs help ensure the quality of the data used in making critical worker protection decisions. Wikipedia.org
ANSI · The American National Standards Institute #
a voluntary membership organization, run with private funding. that develops national consensus standards for a wide variety of devices and procedures. www.weizmann.ac.il
CAPA - Corrective Action and Preventive Action #
Also called corrective action/preventive action) are improvements to an organization's processes taken to eliminate causes of non-conformities or other undesirable situations. CAPA is a concept within GMP (good manufacturing practice). It focuses on the systematic investigation of the root causes of non-conformities in an attempt to prevent their recurrence for corrective action, or to prevent occurrence as preventive action. Corrective actions are implemented in response to customer complaints, undesired levels of internal nonconformity, nonconformities identified during an internal audit or adverse or unstable trends in product and process monitoring such as would be identified by SPC (Statistical Process Control). Preventive actions are implemented in response to the identification of potential sources of non-conformity. To ensure that corrective and preventive actions are effective, the systematic investigation of the root causes of failure is pivotal. CAPA is part of the QMS (overall quality management system). Wikipedia.org
CAR - Corrective Action Report #
i) A a report on what was done, if anything to correct/eliminate future nonconformances. A CAR is typically triggered by a Nonconformance Report (NCR) which requires Corrective Action. Not all nonconformances will trigger a corrective action. http://elsmar.com. ii) Corrective and preventive action (CAPA) are improvements to an organization's processes taken to eliminate causes of non-conformities or other undesirable situations. It focuses on the systematic investigation of the root causes of non-conformities in an attempt to prevent their recurrence (corrective action) or to prevent occurrence (preventive action). wikipedia.org
CGMP #
(i) Current Good Manufacturing Practice -the basis principles, procedures and resources required to ensure an environment suitable for manufacturing products of an acceptable quality. www.dsm.com (ii) Regulations as specified by the US FDA or other regulatory body that describes the methods, equipment and control procedures required for food processing, medical device manufacturing and related industries. www.bridgefieldgroup.com
CPAR - Corrective and Preventive Action Request #
a system to deal with quality issues and manage actions taken to resolve them all within the proven ISO framework. www.intimedata.co.za
EMLAP - The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory Accreditation Program #
An accreditation program specifically for labs identifying microorganisms commonly detected in air, fluids, and bulk samples during indoor air quality studies. When a laboratory is accredited by AIHA, the laboratory and its clients have the assurance that the laboratory has met defined standards for performance based on examination of a variety of criteria. When a laboratory is accredited by AIHA, it becomes part of an elite group of laboratories achieving and maintaining a high level of professional performance. Aihaaccreditedlabs.org
EQA - External Quality Assessment #
Some providers of proficiency testing in the medical area use the term “External Quality Assessment (EQA)” for their proficiency testing schemes, or for their broader programmes, or both
GALP - Good Automated Laboratory Practice #
standards that provide guidance in the use of automated equipment and instruments in the laboratory ... www.atlab.com
GAMP - Good Automated Manufacturing Practice #
a technical sub-committee, known as a COP - Community Of Practice - of the International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE). The goal of the community is to promote the understanding of the regulation and use of automated systems within the pharmaceutical industry. The GAMP publishes a series of Good Practice Guides for its members on several topics involved in drug manufacturing. The most well-known is the GAMP Guide for Validation of Automated Systems in Pharmaceutical Manufacture. The last major revision (GAMP5) was released in January 2008. en.wikipedia.org
GCP - Good Clinical Practices #
the practices, responsibilities and actions of the sponsor, investigator, and monitor, that must be followed in any clinical trial to ensure the safety of study participants and the quality of the data. www.painceptor.com
GMP - Good Manufacturing Practice #
regulations, which have the force of law, require that manufacturers, processors, and packagers of drugs, medical devices, some food, and blood take proactive steps to ensure that their products are safe, pure, and effective. GMP regulations require a quality approach to manufacturing, enabling companies to minimize or eliminate instances of contamination, mix-ups, and errors. www.sciteclabs.com
GUM - Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement #
The definitive document on the subject of measurement uncertainty. The GUM has been adopted by all major National Measurement Institutes (NMIs), by laboratory accreditation standards such as ISO 17025 which is required for ILAC accreditation,[1] and employed in most modern national and international documentary standards on measurement methods and technology. Wikipedia.org
GxP - Good Practice #
A general term for Good Practice quality guidelines and regulations. These guidelines are used in many fields, including the pharmaceutical and food industries. The titles of these good practice guidelines usually begin with "Good" and end in "Practice", with the specific practice descriptor in between. GxP represents the abbreviations of these titles, where x (a common symbol for a variable) represents the specific descriptor. A "c" or "C" is sometimes added to the front of the acroynm. The preceding "c" stands for "current." For example, cGMP is an acronym for "current Good Manufacturing Practices." cGMP is the most well known example of a GxP. The term GxP is only used in a casual manner, to refer in a general way to a collection of quality guidelines. Wikipedia
HorRat - The Horwitz ratio #
A useful index of method performance with respect to precision. A normalized performance parameter indicating the acceptability of methods of analysis with respect to among-laboratory precision (reproducibility). It is the ratio of the observed relative standard deviation among laboratories calculated from the actual performance data, RSDR (%), to the corresponding predicted relative standard deviation calculated from the Horwitz equation PRSDR (%) = 2C(-0.15), where C is the concentration found or added, expressed as a mass fraction. It is more or less independent of analyte, matrix, method, and time of publication (as a surrogate for the state of the art of analytical chemistry). It is now one of the acceptability criteria for many of the recently adopted chemical methods of analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the European Union, and other European organizations dealing with food analysis (e.g., European Committee for Standardization and Nordic Analytical Committee). The origin and applications of the formula are described. Consistent deviations from the ratio on the low side (values <0.5) may indicate unreported averaging or excellent training and experience; consistent deviations on the high side (values >2) may indicate inhomogeneity of the test samples, need for further method optimization or training, operating below the limit of determination, or an unsatisfactory method. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
IAF · International Accreditation Forum #
International Accreditation Forum Inc. www.navigateinternationalstandards.com
ILAC · International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation #
an international partner with IAF and ISO. www.navigateinternationalstandards.com
IQ/OQ/PQ - Installation Qualification, Operational Qualification, Performance Qualification #
In the pharmaceutical, medical device, food, blood establishments, tissue establishments, and clinical trials industries, validation is the documented act of demonstrating that a procedure, process, and activity will consistently lead to the expected results. It often includes the qualification of systems and equipment. The activity of qualifying systems and equipment is divided into a number of subsections including the following: Design qualification (DQ), Component qualification (CQ), Installation qualification (IQ), Operational qualification (OQ) and Performance qualification (PQ). Wikipedia
ISO 14000 #
The ISO 14000 environmental management standards exist to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes etc.) negatively affect the environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air, water, or land); (b) comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements, and (c) continually improve in the above. ISO 14000 is similar to ISO 9000 quality management in that both pertain to the process of how a product is produced, rather than to the product itself. As with ISO 9000, certification is performed by third-party organizations rather than being awarded by ISO directly. The ISO 19011 audit standard applies when auditing for both 9000 and 14000 compliance at once. Wikipedia
ISO 17025 #
Specifies the general requirements for the competence to carry out tests and/or calibrations, including sampling. It covers testing and calibration performed using standard methods, non-standard methods, and laboratory-developed methods. ISO.org
ISO · International Standards Organization #
ISO does not create standards but - as with ANSI - provide a means of verifying that a proposed standard has met certain requirements for due process, consensus, and other criteria by those developing the standard. www.orafaq.com
ISTA - International Safe Transit Association #
An organization focused on the specific concerns of transport packaging. ISTA test procedures define how packages should perform to ensure protection of their contents by optimizing packages that are survivable, sustainable, and successful. Use of ISTA test procedures reduces risks in the transport environment and increases confidence in the safe delivery of a tested packaged-product. ISTA members include shippers who manufacture and distribute products, carriers who provide the distribution means, organizations that supply packaging materials and services, and testing laboratories that perform packaged-product performance tests. Ista.org
NCR - Non Conformance Report #
Physical evidence of non-compliance. For example, the absence of a required record or incomplete information on an existing record. Note that this element is particularly important as lack of physical evidence will often mean that the non-conformance it is not accepted by management and no action is taken. For example, an auditor's considered opinion that a design process is inadequate is open to dispute by designers performing the work. However, objective evidence that a design description does not comply with the company's definition of best practice as documented in design standards is likely to trigger corrective action by management. www.chambers.com.au
NIOSH - The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health #
A US Federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related disease and injury. Despite its name, which would suggest that it is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). NIOSH is responsible for conducting research on the full scope of occupational disease and injury ranging from lung disease in miners to carpal tunnel syndrome in computer users. In addition to conducting research, NIOSH investigates potentially hazardous working conditions when requested by employers or employees; makes recommendations and disseminates information on preventing workplace disease, injury, and disability; and provides training to occupational safety and health professionals. Medterms.com
NLLAP - The National Lead Laboratory Accreditation Program #
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established to recognize laboratories that demonstrate the ability to accurately analyze paint chip, dust, or soil samples for lead. Fixed-site laboratories, mobile laboratories, and testing firms that operate portable equipment are all eligible to obtain EPA recognition through the NLLAP. An organization may choose to be recognized for one, two, or all three of the sample types (paint chips, dust, and soil) in the NLLAP. EPA.gov
OOS - Out of specification #
A specification is an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, or service. Should a material, product or service fail to meet one or more of the applicable specifications, it may be referred to as being out of specification. http://en.wikipedia.org/
OOS - Out of Specification #
Term used to refer to an out of specification result in the lab that requires an investigation workflow be generated and the lab manager be notified
OSHA - The Occupational Safety and Health Administration #
A government agency under the U.S. Dept. of Labor that helps employers reduce injuries, illnesses, and deaths in the workplace. Toolingu.com
QA - Quality Assurance #
(i) QA, as distinguished from quality control (QC), involves activities in the business, systems, and technical audit areas. A set of predetermined, systematic actions which is required if a product or service is to satisfy quality requirements. www.st.com. (ii) All the planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system and demonstrated as needed, to provide adequate confidence that an entity (service, product, process, activity, organization) will fulfill the requirements for quality. strategis.ic.gc.ca
QC - Quality Control #
(i) the regulatory process through which we measure actual performance, compare it with standards, and act on the difference. Also sometimes used to distinguish inspection and test activities from other quality activities (see QA: Quality Assurance). www.st.com (ii) the operational techniques and activities undertaken within the quality assurance system to verify that the requirements for quality of the trial-related activities have been fulfilled. www.trimanos.com
QMS · Quality management system #
Quality management system. Such as ISO/IEC 17025
RSD - Relative Standard Deviation #
A measure of the reproducibility of an analysis. This is determined by dividing the standard deviation (of a sample rather than the population) by the mean for the same set and then multiplying by 100%. www.ne-wea.org
SD - Standard deviation #
a measure of the variability of a distribution of scores. The more the scores cluster around the mean, the smaller the standard deviation. In a normal distribution, 68% of the scores fall within one standard deviation above and one standard deviation below the mean. www.wrightslaw.com
SOP · Standard Operating Procedure #
documents that describe a specific method of accomplishing a task that is to be followed precisely the same way every time. www.madison.k12.wi.us
SPC - Statistical Process Control #
Amethod of quality control which uses statistical methods. SPC is applied in order to monitor and control a process. Monitoring and controlling the process ensures that it operates at its full potential. At its full potential, the process can make as much conforming product as possible with a minimum (if not an elimination) of waste (rework or trash). SPC can be applied to any process where the "conforming product" (product meeting specifications) output can be measured. Some key tools are used in SPC. These include control charts; a focus on continuous improvement; and the design of experiments. An example of a process where SPC is applied is manufacturing lines. Wikipedia.org
TQM - Total Quality Management #
i) a general process framework that grew out of the work of Deming in Japan after WWII. The framework is focused on specifying the processes necessary to ensure incremental process improvement. Unlike most process frameworks, this one also provides a large number of intellectual tools to be used during process improvement and it also defines some processes in considerable detail. pathfinderpeople.blogs.com/hslahman. ii) Total Quality Management. A comprehensive system of measuring the efficiency, effectiveness and adaptability of the total process. www.asresearch.com

General

Analyte #
the substance which a laboratory test aims to detect. In cholesterol testing, for example, the analyte is cholesterol. In genetic testing, the analyte could be, for example, a specific allele or genetic mutation. www.cs.uu.nl
Base metal #
i) Any metal other than a precious or noble metal. ii) The principal metal of an alloy. iii) The principal metal of a piece underlying a coating of another metal. Example: Iron, aluminum, magnesium, copper, nickel, zinc ... www.metsoc.org
BEE - Black Economic Empowerment #
A South African Government policy aimed at increasing the access that black South Africans have to “productive assets whilst simultaneously ensuring the productivity of those assets”. BEE seeks “to promote new opportunities for and increase the levels of participation of black people in the ownership, management and control of economic activities”. Quotes from the Black Economic Empowerment Commission Report, 2001.
Best of Breed #
The best product of its type. Organisations often purchase software from different vendors in order to obtain the best-of-breed for each application area; for example, a human resources package from one vendor and an accounting package from another. While enterprise solution (ERP) vendors provide a wealth of applications for the enterprise and tout their integrated system as the superior solution, every module may not be best-of-breed. It is difficult to excel in every niche. www.answers.com
BOD - Biochemical Oxygen Demand #
A measure of the amount of oxygen consumed in the biological processes that break down organic matter in water. BOD is used as an indirect measure of the concentration of biologically degradable material present in organic wastes. It usually reflects the amount of oxygen consumed in five days by biological processes breaking down organic waste. BOD can also be used as an indicator of pollutant level, where the greater the BOD, the greater the degree of pollution. antron.dupont.com
CFR · Code of Federal Regulations #
the manufacturing standards that govern and regulate blood operation, laboratories and other medical functions throughout the United States. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) enforces compliance of the CFR. www.yourbloodcenter.org
CIP - Carbon in pulp #
a technique for recovery of gold which has been liberated into a cyanide solution as part of the gold cyanidation process, a gold extraction technique. en.wikipedia.org
COD - Chemical Oxygen Demand #
A quantitative measure of the amount of oxygen required to oxidize all organic components in a unit volume on waste water - non-biodegradable as well as the BOD. The COD level can be determined more readily than BOD, but this measurement does not indicate how much of the waste can be decomposed by biological oxidation (www.bugsatwork.com). the amount of oxygen required for chemical oxidation of pollutants in water. The higher the COD, the higher the water pollution (www.pref.mie.jp)
Composite sample #
A sample that is made up of a number of grab samples that have been thoroughly mixed together. www.omafra.gov.on.ca. Also see grab sample
COTS · Commercial off the shelf #
(i) commercially available products that can be purchased and integrated with little or no customisation, thus facilitating customer infrastructure expansion and reducing costs. www.raidstorage.uk.com (ii) Ready-made products such as application software marketed by software vendors. The objective of the software vendor is to create a package suitable for a variety of users in the same industry or with the same application. www.glenchambers.com
DBTT - Ductile–Brittle Transition Temperature #
The point at which the fracture energy passes below a pre-determined point (for steels typically 40 J for a standard Charpy impact test). DBTT is important since, once a material is cooled below the DBTT, it has a much greater tendency to shatter on impact instead of bending or deforming. Wikipedia.org
DGA - Dissolved Gas Analysis #
the single-most comprehensive asset condition assessment and management tool for oil-filled transformers. DGA offers advanced detection of incipient fault conditions. www.energy.siemens.com
DRM · Digital Rights Management #
i) any technology used to protect the interests of owners of content and services (such as copyright owners). Typically, authorized recipients or users must acquire a license in order to consume the protected material according to the rights or business rules set by the content owner. www.microsoft.com. ii) DRM refers to the administration of rights in a digital environment. DRM solutions may use technologies to protect files from unauthorised use, as well as ensuring that rights holders are compensated for the use of their intellectual property. ww.europe4drm.com Bika does not subscribe to this philosophy, but that of the Free Software Movement, "Free software is a matter of freedom: people should be free to use software in all the ways that are socially useful, run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve". See http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/
EDTA - Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid #
i) a complex molecule used medically to chelate metal ions in cases of lead or heavy metal poisoning. wordnet.princeton.edu. ii) acronym for ethylene diamine tetra acetate (C 10 H 16 N 2 O 8 ). This large organic compound binds to many different metal ions and prevents them from reacting with any other chemical that might be present in solution. ... www.chem.ubc.ca
EH&S (EHS) - Environmental Health & Safety #
EHS management has two general objectives: prevention of incidents or accidents that might result from abnormal operating conditions on the one hand and reduction of adverse effects that result from normal operating conditions on the other hand. Wikipedia.org
EHL - Environmental Health Laboratory #
EHLs provide analytical and technical information in support of government or private sector environmental health programs. Such programs include but are not limited to those associated with the surveillance of: air, food, seafood, soil, water, and zoonotic diseases from domestic and wild animals. Environmental laboratories provide consultative and analytical services to employers and labour through support to industrial hygiene and occupational medicine professionals in chemical hazard identification, monitoring, and analysis. They may also research and develop new analytical and sampling methodologies for workplace chemical hazards
ELN - Electronic Laboratory Notebook #
An electronic lab notebook is a software program designed to replace paper laboratory notebooks. Lab notebooks in general are used by scientists and technicians to document research, experiments and procedures performed in a laboratory
Email whitelist #
a list of contacts that you deem are acceptable for sending mail to your domain and should not be labeled as spam. www.google.com
EPA - Environmental Protection Agency #
the US government agency founded to “protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment–air, water and land–upon which life depends.” www.belluckfox.com
Flashpoint #
the lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air and burn when a source of ignition (sparks, open flames, cigarettes, etc.) is present. Two tests are used to determine the flashpoint: open cup and closed cup. web.mit.edu
FOSS · Free Open Source Software #
Also see glossary item OSS (i) a joint term sometimes used when refering to the Free Software and Open Source communities as a whole without differentiating between the terms and the matching philosophies. www.libervis.com (ii) an acronym that is most often used in English-speaking military software communities.The acronym was first used in a 2003 MITRE report that documented widespread use of, and reliance on, free software and open source software in the United States Department of Defense. www.wikipedia.org
GCP - Good Clinical Practices #
the practices, responsibilities and actions of the sponsor, investigator, and monitor, that must be followed in any clinical trial to ensure the safety of study participants and the quality of the data. www.painceptor.com
GMP - Good Manufacturing Practice #
regulations, which have the force of law, require that manufacturers, processors, and packagers of drugs, medical devices, some food, and blood take proactive steps to ensure that their products are safe, pure, and effective. GMP regulations require a quality approach to manufacturing, enabling companies to minimize or eliminate instances of contamination, mix-ups, and errors. www.sciteclabs.com
Grab sample #
A single sample collected at a particular time and place that represents the composition of the water, air, or soil only at that time and place. www.caslab.com. Also see composite sample
HorRat - The Horwitz ratio #
A useful index of method performance with respect to precision. A normalized performance parameter indicating the acceptability of methods of analysis with respect to among-laboratory precision (reproducibility). It is the ratio of the observed relative standard deviation among laboratories calculated from the actual performance data, RSDR (%), to the corresponding predicted relative standard deviation calculated from the Horwitz equation PRSDR (%) = 2C(-0.15), where C is the concentration found or added, expressed as a mass fraction. It is more or less independent of analyte, matrix, method, and time of publication (as a surrogate for the state of the art of analytical chemistry). It is now one of the acceptability criteria for many of the recently adopted chemical methods of analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the European Union, and other European organizations dealing with food analysis (e.g., European Committee for Standardization and Nordic Analytical Committee). The origin and applications of the formula are described. Consistent deviations from the ratio on the low side (values <0.5) may indicate unreported averaging or excellent training and experience; consistent deviations on the high side (values >2) may indicate inhomogeneity of the test samples, need for further method optimization or training, operating below the limit of determination, or an unsatisfactory method. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
IP Address #
Internet Protocol addresses are unique numbers that allow devices to locate information on a network
ISBER - International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories #
International forum that provides support for biorepositories and biobanks and addresses the technical, legal, ethical, and managerial issues relevant to repositories of biological and environmental specimens. Isber.org
KPI - Key Performance Indicator #
Industry jargon for a type of performance measurement. KPIs are commonly used by an organization to evaluate the success of a particular activity in which it is engaged. Sometimes success is defined in terms of making progress toward strategic goals, but often success is simply the repeated achievement of some level of operational goal, for example, zero defects, 10/10 customer satisfaction, etc. Wikipedia.org
LIS - Laboratory Information System #
Perform similar functions as a LIMS, Laboratory Information Management Software, computer software that is used in the laboratory for the management of samples, laboratory users, instruments, standards and other laboratory functions such as invoicing, plate management and work flow automation. wikipedia.org
Matrix (chemical analysis) #
In chemical analysis, matrix refers to the components of a sample other than the analyte. The matrix can have a considerable effect on the way the analysis is conducted and the quality of the results obtained; such effects are called matrix effects. For example, the ionic strength of the solution can have an effect on the activity coefficients of the analytes. The most common approach for accounting for matrix effects is to build a calibration curve using standard samples with known analyte concentration and which try to approximate the matrix of the sample as much as possible. This is especially important for solid samples where there is a strong matrix influence. In cases with complex or unknown matrices, the standard addition method can be used. In this technique, the response of the sample is measured and recorded, for example, using an electrode selective for the analyte. Then, a small volume of standard solution is added and the response is measured again. Ideally, the standard addition should increase the analyte concentration by a factor of 1.5 to 3, and several additions should be averaged. The volume of standard solution should be small enough to disturb the matrix as little as possible. http://en.wikipedia.org/
Matrix isolation #
Matrix isolation is an experimental technique used in chemistry and physics which generally involves a material being trapped within an unreactive matrix. A host matrix is a continuous solid phase in which guest particles (atoms, molecules, ions, etc.) are embedded. The guest is said to be isolated within the host matrix. Initially the term matrix-isolation was used to describe the placing of a chemical species in any unreactive material, often polymers or resins, but more recently has referred specifically to gases in low-temperature solids. A typical matrix isolation experiment involves a guest sample being diluted in the gas phase with the host material, usually a noble gas or nitrogen. This mixture is then deposited on a cold window, often cooled to 10 kelvins or below. The sample may then be studied using various spectroscopic procedures. http://en.wikipedia.org
MES & MIS - Manufacturing Execution/Information Systems #
Computerized systems used in manufacturing. MES can provide the right information at the right time and show the manufacturing decision maker "how the current conditions on the plant floor can be optimized to improve production output. MES work in real time to enable the control of multiple elements of the production process, e.g. inputs, personnel, machines and support services. The idea of MES might be seen as an intermediate step between, on the one hand, an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system, and a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) or process control system on the other; although historically, exact boundaries have fluctuated. Wikipedia.org
Metrology #
i) The science of measurement. There are two branches of metrology: legal metrology deals with settling legal requirements for measurement and physical metrology provides national measurement standards and tests measuring and calibration equipment. The correct calibration of equipment underpins all other forms of conformity assessment. www.med.govt.nz. (ii) Metrology is the science and process of ensuring that a measurement meets specified degrees of both accuracy and precision. en.wikipedia.org
Mycotoxin #
Certain molds, such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Chaetomium and Stachybotrys release chemicals during their metabolic cycle called mycotoxins, which can be toxic to humans and animals. These chemicals can be found in the mold spores, within the mold itself, and in the materials that the mold is growing. Inhalation of mold spores or dust containing mycotoxins can result in human exposure with potentially severe heath effects. www.totalwellness.com
NIH - National Institutes of Health #
An agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. Its science and engineering counterpart is the National Science Foundation. It comprises 27 separate institutes, centers, and offices. As of 2003, the NIH was responsible for 28%—about US$26.4 billion—of the total biomedical research funding spent annually in the U.S., with most of the rest coming from industry. Wikipedia.org
NTU - Nephelometric Turbidity Unit #
The unit used to describe turbidity. Nephelometric refers to the way the instrument, a nephelometer, measures how much light is scattered by suspended particles in the water. The greater the scattering, the higher the turbidity. Therefore, low NTU values indicate high water clarity, while high NTU values indicate low water clarity. www.pca.state.mn.us
OSS · Open Source Software #
software for which the underlying programming code is available to users so that they may read it, make changes to it, and build new versions of the software incorporating their changes. There are many types of Open Source Software, mainly differing in the licensing term under which altered copies of the source code must be redistributed. www.domainsmagazine.com
Pharmacopoeia #
authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction. They differ from formularies in that they are far more complete; formularies simply list drugs or collections of formulas for the compounding of medicinal preparations. However, sometimes the terms "pharmacopoeia" and "formulary" are used interchangeably. In addition to serving as current reference sources, pharmacopoeias and formularies provide an historical record of pharmacy practice, drug use, and drug availability. www.nlm.nih.gov
PIM - Personal Information Manager #
A personal information manager (often referred to as a PIM tool or, more simply, a PIM) is a type of application software that functions as a personal organizer. The acronym PIM is now, more commonly, used in reference to Personal information management as a field of study.[citation needed] As an information management tool, a PIM tool's purpose is to facilitate the recording, tracking, and management of certain types of "personal information". http://en.wikipedia.org/
PPE - Personal Protective Equipment #
Protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garment or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury by blunt impacts, electrical hazards, heat, chemicals, and infection, for job-related occupational safety and health purposes. Wikipedia
PQL - Practical Quantitation Limits #
the lowest level of quantitation that can be reliably achieved within specified limits of precision and accuracy. www.mfe.govt.nz
PQR - Procedure Qualification Record #
A record of a test weld performed and tested (more rigorously) to ensure that the procedure will produce a good weld. Individual welders are certified with a qualification test documented in a Welder Qualification Test Record (WQTR) that shows they have the understanding and demonstrated ability to work within the specified WPS. Wikipedia.org
Precious metal #
a rare metallic chemical element of high economic value. Chemically, the precious metals are less reactive than most elements, have high luster, are softer or more ductile, and have higher melting points than other metals. en.wikipedia.org
Proprietary Software #
i) is software offered for sale or license where the vendor controls the source code. www.dis.wa.gov ii) Much of the software users are accustomed to is known as proprietary software. With proprietary software users are not allowed to see the source code. Nor are they able to modify the code for their own use or to distribute to others. In some cases certain customers are allowed to view the source code - sometimes for an additional fee - but even then they are not able to alter and re-distribute the software. Examples of proprietary software include Microsoft's Office suite. floss.meraka.org.za
QA - Quality Assurance #
(i) QA, as distinguished from quality control (QC), involves activities in the business, systems, and technical audit areas. A set of predetermined, systematic actions which is required if a product or service is to satisfy quality requirements. www.st.com. (ii) All the planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system and demonstrated as needed, to provide adequate confidence that an entity (service, product, process, activity, organization) will fulfill the requirements for quality. strategis.ic.gc.ca
QC - Quality Control #
(i) the regulatory process through which we measure actual performance, compare it with standards, and act on the difference. Also sometimes used to distinguish inspection and test activities from other quality activities (see QA: Quality Assurance). www.st.com (ii) the operational techniques and activities undertaken within the quality assurance system to verify that the requirements for quality of the trial-related activities have been fulfilled. www.trimanos.com
QCM - Quartz Crystal Microbalance #
a technique developed for measuring the thiosulfate concentration in gold thiosulfate leaching solutions containing copper and ammonia. The method, which is based on the relationship between thiosulfate concentration and the oxidation rate of silver, was firstly studied using the ‘rotating electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance’ (REQCM). It was found that the measured silver oxidation rate is directly related to the thiosulfate concentration. The silver oxidation rate was also shown to be unaffected by the presence of other species likely to be found in gold leach solutions. The technique was then evaluated for use as a method of flow injection analysis, utilizing a flow through ‘electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance’ (EQCM) cell. www.ingentaconnect.com
Refractory #
A refractory material is one that retains its strength at high temperatures. ASTM C71 defines refractories as "non-metallic materials having those chemical and physical properties that make them applicable for structures, or as components of systems, that are exposed to environments above 1,000 °F (811 K; 538 °C)". Refractory materials are used in linings for furnaces, kilns, incinerators and reactors. They are also used to make crucibles. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refractory
Repeatability #
(i) the variation in measurements taken by a single person or instrument on the same item. A measurement is said to be repeatable when this variation is small. en.wikipedia.org (ii) the degree to which repeated measurements of the same quantity vary about their mean. www.baneng.com (iii) the closeness of agreement between individual results, using the same method, test substance, and set of laboratory conditions. www.atlab.com
SaaS - Software as a Service #
(i) a software application delivery model where a software vendor develops a web-native software application and hosts and operates the application for use by its customers over the Internet. Customers pay not for owning the software itself but for using it. The term SaaS has become the industry preferred term, generally replacing the earlier terms Application Service Provider (ASP), On-Demand and "Utility computing" (ii) As a term, SaaS is generally associated with business software and is typically thought of as a low-cost way for businesses to obtain the same benefits of commercially licensed, internally operated software without the associated complexity and high initial cost. Consumer-oriented web-native software is generally known as Web 2.0 and not as SaaS. Many types of software are well suited to the SaaS model, where customers may have little interest or capability in software deployment, but do have substantial computing needs. Application areas such as Customer Relations Management, Video Conferencing, Human Resources, Accounting and Email are just a few of the initial markets showing SaaS success. The distinction between SaaS and earlier applications delivered over the Internet is that SaaS solutions were developed specifically to leverage web technologies such as the browser, thereby making them web-native. www.beingpro.com
SAR - Sodium Adsorption Ratio #
this ratio expresses the relative activity of sodium ions in exchange reactions. www.alken-murray.com
SCM - Supply Chain Management #
The design, planning, execution, control, and monitoring of supply chain activities synchronizing supply with demand. http://www.apics.org/dictionary. For laboratories SCM applies to maintaining sufficient stock levels of reagents and instrument service levels
SD - Standard deviation #
a measure of the variability of a distribution of scores. The more the scores cluster around the mean, the smaller the standard deviation. In a normal distribution, 68% of the scores fall within one standard deviation above and one standard deviation below the mean. www.wrightslaw.com
SKU - Stock Keeping Unit #
In the field of inventory management, a SKU is a distinct item, such as a product or service, as it is offered for sale that embodies all attributes associated with the item and that distinguish it from all other items: manufacturer, description, material, size, color, packaging, and warranty terms. When a business takes an inventory, it counts the quantity of each stock keeping unit. SKUs are not always physical objects. Anything that can be sold separately from anything else has a stock keeping unit, such as extended warranties, delivery fees, installation fees, and licenses. Wikipedia.org
SSO - Single Sign-on #
A session/user authentication process that permits a user to enter one name and password in order to access multiple applications. The process authenticates the user for all the applications they have been given rights to and eliminates further prompts when they switch applications during a particular session. http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com
STEM - Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math #
A US Government acronym for the fields of study in the categories of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The acronym is in use regarding access to work visas for immigrants who are skilled in these fields.[1] Maintaining a citizenry that is well versed in the STEM fields is a key portion of the public education agenda of the United States. Wikipedia
Systems administrator #
A person who manages the computer systems in an organization. The responsibilities of a system administrator and network administrator often overlap; however, the system administrator is more geared to the computer hardware and less on the network, although in many cases, system and network administrator are one in the same, especially in smaller companies. A system administrator is involved with OS and hardware installations and configurations and may be involved with application installations and upgrades. A system administrator may also perform systems programmer activities. PCmag.com
TAT · Turn-around time #
Turn-around time
TDS - Total dissolved solids #
a quantitative measure of the residual minerals dissolved in water that remain after evaporation of a solution. Usually expressed in milligrams per liter. www.mwdoc.com
TKN - Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen #
(i) an oxidative procedure that converts organic nitrogen forms to ammonia by digestion with an acid, catalyst, and heat. www.soil.ncsu.edu (ii) The sum of organic nitrogen and ammonia in a water body. Measured in milligrams per liter (mg/L). High measurements of TKN typically results from sewage and manure discharges to water bodies. www.pca.state.mn.us
TOC - Total Organic Content #
the total amount of organic matter dissolved in water. www.greenprocurement.org
TQM - Total Quality Management #
i) a general process framework that grew out of the work of Deming in Japan after WWII. The framework is focused on specifying the processes necessary to ensure incremental process improvement. Unlike most process frameworks, this one also provides a large number of intellectual tools to be used during process improvement and it also defines some processes in considerable detail. pathfinderpeople.blogs.com/hslahman. ii) Total Quality Management. A comprehensive system of measuring the efficiency, effectiveness and adaptability of the total process. www.asresearch.com
Trace metals #
metals in extremely small quantities, almost at the molecular level, that reside in or are present in animal and plant cells and tissue. They are a necessary part of good nutrition. en.wikipedia.org
Turbidity #
The light-scattering property associated with suspended particles in a liquid. A turbid solution appears cloudy. www.ne-wea.org
URL - Uniform Resource Locator #
This is the address of a resource on the Internet. For example, the URL of the Bika Help Centre is http://www.bikalabs.com/helpcentre
VOC - Volatile Organic Compound #
i) any organic compound which evaporates readily to the atmosphere. VOCs contribute significantly to photochemical smog production and certain health problems. www.egr.msu.edu ii) organic substances which easily become vaporous or gaseous. Frequently deemed a health hazard. Often used as quick dry solvents which, on evaporation, give off volatiles. An increasing environmental concern. www.trident-itw.com
VPS - Virtual Private Server #
A marketing term used by Internet hosting services to refer to a virtual machine. The term is used for emphasizing that the virtual machine, although running in software on the same physical computer as other customers' virtual machines, is functionally equivalent to a separate physical computer, is dedicated to the individual customer's needs, has the privacy of a separate physical computer, and can be configured to run server software. Each virtual server can run its own full-fledged operating system and can be independently rebooted. The practice of partitioning a single server so that it appears as multiple servers has long been common practice on mainframe computers and mid-range computers such as the IBM AS/400. It has become more prevalent with the development of virtualization software and technologies for microcomputers. Wikipedia
WIKI #
(i) online collaboration model and tool that allows any user to edit some content of webpages through a simple browser. mobileman.projects.supsi.ch (ii) “Wiki wiki” means "rapidly" in the Hawaiian language. www.cpsr-peru.org (iii) A website or similar online resource which allows users to add and edit content collectively. www.parliament.vic.gov.au

Instruments

AES - Auger Electron Spectroscopy #
Auger (pronounced ~o-jay) electron spectroscopy is an electron spectroscopic method that uses a beam of electrons to knock electrons out of inner-shell orbitals. Auger electrons are ejected to conserve energy when electrons in higher shells fill the vacancy in the inner shell. These Auger electrons have energies characteristic of the emitting atom due to the characteristic energy-level structure of that element. elchem.kaist.ac.kr
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials #
An international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. www.astm.org
Autoclave #
Closed vessel for conducting chemical reactions under high pressure and temperature www.potterseurope.org. a device that uses steam to sterilise equipment and other objects. This means that all bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores are inactivated. However, in 2003 scientists discovered a single-cell organism, Strain 121, that survives autoclave temperatures. Prions also may not be destroyed by autoclaving. en.wikipedia.org
CFA - Continuous Flow Analysis #
Also known as Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA). Used in automatic analysers when a series of samples are continuously pumped into tubes along with appropriate reagents, separated by air bubbles, and passing through detectors for analysis. See animation at http://www.skalar.com/assets/flash/continuous.html
CLSI - Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute #
A volunteer driven, membership supported, nonprofit, standards organization. CLSI promotes the development and use of voluntary laboratory consensus standards and guidelines within the health care community. en.wikipedia.org
Cryoscope #
a measuring instrument for measuring freezing and melting points. wordnet.princeton.edu
DTE - Data Terminal Equipment #
An end instrument that converts user information into signals or reconverts received signals. These can also be called tail circuits. A DTE device communicates with the data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE). The DTE/DCE classification was introduced by IBM. Basically, V.35 is a high-speed serial interface designed to support both higher data rates and connectivity between DTEs (data-terminal equipment) or DCEs (data-communication equipment) over digital lines. Wikipedia.org. In laboratories used for serial communications between LIMS and lab instruments
ESB - Enterprise Service Bus #
Software architecture model used for designing and implementing the interaction and communication between mutually interacting software applications in Service Oriented Architecture. Wikipedia
ETL - Extract, Transform, Load #
A process in database usage and especially in data warehousing that involves: Extracting data from outside sources, Transforming it to fit operational needs, which can include quality levels & Loading it into the end target database or warehouse. Wikipedia
Extensometer #
A device that is used to measure changes in the length of an object. It is useful for stress-strain measurements and tensile tests. Its name comes from "extension-meter". Wikipedia.org
FIA – Flow Injection Analysis #
microchemical technique to automate wet chemical methods. In a FIA system, a carrier solution and the chemical reagents are continuously pumped through tubes, mixing coils and finally through a flow cell in a detector. A small portion of the sample is injected into the carrier. The carrier merges with one or more reagents to produce a chemical reaction. The resulting colour change in the sample zone is measured in the detector. The time between injection and detection is typically 1 minute. The dispersion or dilution of the sample zone is controlled by the system components, i.e. injected volume, flow rates and length and diameter of the tubing. When the dispersed sample zone reaches the flow cell of the detector neither the chemical reaction nor the dispersion process must have reached completion or a steady state. Keeping identical conditions for both samples and standards makes evaluation and quantification reproducible and precise. www.foss.dk
FID - Flame Ionization Detector #
a type of detector used in gas chromatography. See GC FID. The Flame Ionization Detector (FID) is one of the many methods by which to analyze materials coming off of gas chromatography column. The detection of organic compounds is most effectively done with flame ionization. Biochemical compounds such as proteins, nucleotides, and pharmaceuticals can be studied with flame ionization as well as other detectors, like thermal conductivity, thermionic, or electrolytic conductivity due to the presence of nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur atoms or because of the universality of the thermal conductivity detector. However, typically the biochemical compounds have a greater amount of carbon present than other elements. This means that a particular compound may be more easily detected using flame ionization over the other methods because of higher carbon concentration and also flame ionizations sensitivity. http://en.wikipedia.org
FOSS · Free Open Source Software #
Also see glossary item OSS (i) a joint term sometimes used when refering to the Free Software and Open Source communities as a whole without differentiating between the terms and the matching philosophies. www.libervis.com (ii) an acronym that is most often used in English-speaking military software communities.The acronym was first used in a 2003 MITRE report that documented widespread use of, and reliance on, free software and open source software in the United States Department of Defense. www.wikipedia.org
GC - Gas chromatography #
a method for separating substances in a mixture and measuring the relative quantities of substances. It is a useful technique for substances that do not decompose at high temperatures and when a very small quantity of sample is available. www.polymicro.com
GC FID - Gas Chromatograph(y) Flame Ionization Detector #
n GC/FID, the FID or flame ionization detector detects analytes by measuring an electrical current generated by electrons from burning carbon particles in the sample. The flame ionization detector (FID) is a non-selective detector used in conjunction with gas chromatography. Because it is non-selective, there is a potential for many non-target compounds present in samples to interfere with this analysis and for poor resolution especially in complex samples. The FID works by directing the gas phase output from the column into a hydrogen flame. A voltage of 100-200V is applied between the flame and an electrode located away from the flame. The increased current due to electrons emitted by burning carbon particles is then measured. Although the signal current is very small (the ionization efficiency is only 0.0015%) the noise level is also very small (<10-13 amp) and with a well-optimized system, sensitivities of 5 x 10-12 g/ml for n-heptane at a signal/noise ratio of 2 can be easily realized. Except for a very few organic compounds (e.g. carbon monoxide, etc.) the FID detects all carbon containing compounds. The detector also has an extremely wide linear dynamic range that extends over, at least five orders of magnitude with a response index between 0.98-1.02. http://www.chromatography-online.org/
Homogeniser #
A mechanical device which is used to create a stable, uniform dispersion of an insoluble phase within a liquid phase. www.alken-murray.com
HPLC - High Performance Liquid Chromatography #
a family of analytical chemistry techniques for the separation of mixtures. It involves passing the sample, a mixture which contains the analyte, in the "mobile phase", often in a stream of solvent, through the "stationary phase." The stationary phase retards the passage of the components of the sample. When components pass through the system at different rates they become separated in time, like runners in a marathon. ... en.wikipedia.org
Hydrometer #
An inexpensive and widely available analytical device that measures the specific gravity (relative density) of a solution. Very useful to measure the amount of sugar (in Balling or degrees Brix) in a juice or wine. Because density depends on temperature, a thermometer reading of the solution being tested is critical for accurate results. Hydrometers are calibrated to be used at 60° F. winemakermag.com
ICP - Inductively Coupled Plasma #
(i) ICP, combined with optical emission spectrometry, is a commonly used technique to determine chemical analysis of master alloys. www.metallurgaluminium.com (ii) a high temperature conductive gaseous mixture, contained and energized by a radio frequency electromagnetic field. Often used in AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) as a source of energy for the generation of emission spectra from elements. www.ionsigtech.com
ISE - Ion Selective Electrode #
These electrodes respond to ions present in a sample. A potential develops across the membrane surface that is selectively dependent on the concentration of one particular ion in solution. The magnitude of the potential relates to the concentration of the ion concentration. The higher the potential, the higher the concentration. www.ne-wea.org
Kjeldahl method #
a method for the quantitative determination of nitrogen in chemical substances developed by Johan Kjeldahl. The method as described in Julius Cohen's Practical Organic Chemistry of 1910 consists of heating a substance with sulfuric acid which oxidizes nitrogen to ammonium sulfate. In this step potassium sulfate is added in order to increase the boiling point of the medium from 337°C to 373°C. Chemical decomposition of the sample is complete when the medium has become clear and colorless (initially very dark). The solution is then distilled with sodium hydroxide added in small quantities, which converts the ammonium salt to ammonia. The end of the condenser is dipped into a solution of hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid of precisely known concentration. The ammonia reacts with the acid and the remainder of the acid is then titrated with a sodium carbonate solution with a methyl orange PH indicator. In modern times the Kjeldahl method is largely automated and makes use of specific catalysts like mercury oxide or copper sulfate to speed up the decomposition. en.wikipedia.org
Lactometer #
device used to measure the specific gravity, and therefore the richness, of milk. www.answers.com
Lactoscope #
instrument measuring amount of cream in milk. www.tiscali.co.uk
Laminar flow cabinet #
A laminar flow cabinet creates a particle-free working environment by taking air through a filtration system and exhausting it across a work surface in a laminar or unidirectional air stream. Commonly, the filtration system compromises of a pre-filter and a HEPA filter. Because the air within the cabinet does not contain any airborne particles, it is also sterile. The laminar flow cabinet is enclosed on the sides and kept under constant positive pressure in order to prevent the infiltration of contaminated room air. The most common application of the laminar flow cabinet is to provide an individual clean air environment for small items not requiring a full-size cleanroom. In the laboratory, individual laminar flow cabinets are commonly used for specialized work such as spin coating to eliminate airborne contamination that would otherwise interfere with work processes. www.polymer-physics.uwaterloo.ca
LC - Liquid chromatography #
an analytical chromatographic technique that is useful for separating ions or molecules that are dissolved in a solvent. If the sample solution is in contact with a second solid or liquid phase, the different solutes will interact with the other phase to differing degrees due to differences in adsorption, ion-exchange, partitioning, or size. These differences allow the mixture components to be separated from each other by using these differences to determine the transit time of the solutes through a column. www.polymicro.com
MS · Mass spectrometer #
instrument used to measure the masses of molecules and atoms by volatilizing and then ionizing them. The ions are then separated magnetically according to their mass-to-charge ratio. www4.nau.edu
NIR - Near-Infrared Spectroscopy #
A spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from about 800 nm to 2500 nm). Typical applications include pharmaceutical, medical diagnostics (including blood sugar and oximetry), food and agrochemical quality control, and combustion research, as well as cognitive neuroscience research. Wikipedia
OEM - Original Equipment Manufacturer #
Manufactures products or components that are purchased by another company and retailed under that purchasing company's brand name. Wikipedia.org
PLC - Programmable Logic Controller #
microprocessor-based industrial control system. It communicates with other process control components through data links. It is used in process control for simple switching tasks, PID control, complex data manipulation, arithmetic operations, timing and process and machine control. www.onesixsigma.com
Potentiometric #
the apparent equivalence point of a titration at which a relatively large potential change is observed. www.flw.com
Pycnometer or Pyknometer #
a device used for measuring fluid density, also known as a specific gravity bottle. Uses an appropriate working fluid such as water or mercury to find a volume for use in Archimedes' principle. Used in ISO standard: ISO 1183-1:2004. www.wikipedia.org
RSD - Relative Standard Deviation #
A measure of the reproducibility of an analysis. This is determined by dividing the standard deviation (of a sample rather than the population) by the mean for the same set and then multiplying by 100%. www.ne-wea.org
Salinometer #
Any device or instrument for measuring salinity, especially one based on electrical conductivity methods. www.telemet.com
SCADA - Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition #
(i) also System Control and Data Acquisition or Security, Control and Data Acquisition. A common process control application that collects data from sensors on the shop floor or in remote locations and sends them to a central computer for management and control. www.cxrlarus.com (ii) Software systems and algorithms used to provide real-time instructions to plant automation equipment such as programmable logic controllers (PLC). www.bridgefieldgroup.com
SFC - Supercritical Fluid Chromatography #
A form of normal phase chromatography that is used for the analysis and purification of low to moderate molecular weight, thermally labile molecules. It can also be used for the separation of chiral compounds. Principles are similar to those of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), however SFC typically utilizes carbon dioxide as the mobile phase; therefore the entire chromatographic flow path must be pressurized. Wikipedia
UV/Vis Spectroscopy #
Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry involves the spectroscopy of photons and spectrophotometry. It uses light in the visible and adjacent near ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) ranges. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UV-Visible_spectroscopy
Viscometer (viscosimeter) #
an instrument used to measure the viscosity and flow parameters of a fluid. The common Brookfield-type viscometer determines the required force for rotating a disk in the fluid at known speed. Other viscometer types use bubbles, balls or other objects. Viscometers that can measure fluids with high viscosity or molten polymers are usually called rheometer or plastometer. en.wikipedia.org
XRFS - X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy #
a spectroscopic technique that is commonly used with solids, in which X-rays are used to excite a sample and generate secondary X-rays. The X-rays broadcast into the sample by X-ray fluorescence spectrometers eject inner-shell electrons. Outer-shell electrons take the place of the ejected electrons and emit photons in the process. The wavelength of the photons depends on the energy difference between the outer-shell and inner-shell electron orbitals. The amount of X-ray fluorescence is very sample dependent and quantitative analysis requires calibration with standards that are similar to the sample matrix. http://test-equipment.globalspec.com

LIMS

ANSI · The American National Standards Institute #
a voluntary membership organization, run with private funding. that develops national consensus standards for a wide variety of devices and procedures. www.weizmann.ac.il
AR · Analysis Request #
The collection of concurrently requested analyses for a sample. Has unique ID and action log
ASP · Application Service Provider #
i) an ASP deploys, hosts and manages access to a packaged application to multiple parties from a centrally managed facility. The applications are delivered over networks on a subscription basis. This delivery model speeds implementation, minimizes the expenses and risks incurred across the application life cycle, and overcomes the chronic shortage of qualified technical personnel available in-house. www.comptia.org ii) an ASP hosts a variety of applications on a central server. For a fee, customers can access the applications that interest them over secure Internet connections or a private network. This means that they do not need to purchase, install and maintain the software themselves; instead they rent the applications they need from their ASP. www.x-solutions.poet.com
Best of Breed #
The best product of its type. Organisations often purchase software from different vendors in order to obtain the best-of-breed for each application area; for example, a human resources package from one vendor and an accounting package from another. While enterprise solution (ERP) vendors provide a wealth of applications for the enterprise and tout their integrated system as the superior solution, every module may not be best-of-breed. It is difficult to excel in every niche. www.answers.com
BIMS - Biobanking Information Managment System #
A biobank encompasses the entity that receives, stores, processes, and disseminates human biospecimens, their derivatives, and associated data (Wikipedia). A BIMS manages these activities in a regulated context.
CMS · Content Management System #
i) In the context of a Web site, a CMS is a collection of tools designed to allow the creation, modification organisation and removal of information. It is common for a CMS to require users to have no knowledge of HTML in order to create new Web pages. www.bized.ac.uk ii) a system used to organize and facilitate collaborative content creation. internal.bath.ac.uk iii) a document centric collaborative application for managing documents and other content. A CMS is often a web application and often it is used as a method of managing web sites and web content
COA - Certificate of Analysis #
A document issued by the lab to clients, verifying the adherence to product specifications and standards of production. The certificate includes the test results performed on the sample
FASTA format #
In bioinformatics, FASTA format is a text-based format for representing either nucleotide sequences or peptide sequences, in which nucleotides or amino acids are represented using single-letter codes. The format also allows for sequence names and comments to precede the sequences. The format originates from the FASTA software package, but has now become a standard in the field of bioinformatics. The simplicity of FASTA format makes it easy to manipulate and parse sequences using text-processing tools and scripting languages like Python, Ruby, and Perl. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FASTA_format
FLOSS - Free/Libre/Open-Source Software #
FLOSS refers to both Free Software and Open Source Software. FLOSS is liberally licensed to grant the right of users to use, study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. This approach has gained both momentum and acceptance as the potential benefits have been increasingly recognized by both individuals and corporations. In the context of free and open-source software, free refers to the freedom to copy and re-use the software, rather than to the price of the software. Wikipedia
FOSS · Free Open Source Software #
Also see glossary item OSS (i) a joint term sometimes used when refering to the Free Software and Open Source communities as a whole without differentiating between the terms and the matching philosophies. www.libervis.com (ii) an acronym that is most often used in English-speaking military software communities.The acronym was first used in a 2003 MITRE report that documented widespread use of, and reliance on, free software and open source software in the United States Department of Defense. www.wikipedia.org
Gap analysis #
i) The process of determining, documenting, and approving the variance between business requirements and system capabilities in terms of packaged application features and technical architecture. www.georgetown.edu ii) The process of determining and evaluating the variance or distance between two items’ properties being compared. http://uis.georgetown.edu/
How-to #
a How-to is a document describing how to address a single, common use-case or issue
IAF · International Accreditation Forum #
International Accreditation Forum Inc. www.navigateinternationalstandards.com
ILAC · International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation #
an international partner with IAF and ISO. www.navigateinternationalstandards.com
ISO · International Standards Organization #
ISO does not create standards but - as with ANSI - provide a means of verifying that a proposed standard has met certain requirements for due process, consensus, and other criteria by those developing the standard. www.orafaq.com
JC · Job Card #
The work sheet collection of analyses grouped together for work-flow purposes, i.e. all analyses intended for the same lab instrument, work station or analist, or analyses batched together for a specific client
LDAP #
In TCP/IP, a protocol that enables users to locate people, organizations, and other resources in an Internet directory or intranet directory. www.sabc.co.za
LIMS · Laboratory Information Management System #
From the Wikipedia: A LIMS is computer software that is used in the laboratory for the management of samples, laboratory users, instruments, standards and other laboratory functions such as invoicing, plate management, and work flow automation
LSP · LIMS Service Provision #
LIMS service on the ASP (application service provision) model. The LIMS is hosted off-site and offered and priced as a service accessible via the web - full functionality and branded to individual lab colours. Brings LIMS applications within reach of smaller labs. Also see ASP: an ASP hosts applications on a central server. For a fee, customers access the applications over secure Internet connections or network. This means that they do not need to purchase, install and maintain the software themselves, they rent the applications they need from their ASP. www.x-solutions.poet.com
Metrology #
i) The science of measurement. There are two branches of metrology: legal metrology deals with settling legal requirements for measurement and physical metrology provides national measurement standards and tests measuring and calibration equipment. The correct calibration of equipment underpins all other forms of conformity assessment. www.med.govt.nz. (ii) Metrology is the science and process of ensuring that a measurement meets specified degrees of both accuracy and precision. en.wikipedia.org
MITP · project methodology #
Managing the Implementation of the Total Project - the project methodology developed by IBM, ISO 9000 conformant and taught at the Stellenbosch Business School in the 90s
NIR - Near-Infrared Spectroscopy #
A spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from about 800 nm to 2500 nm). Typical applications include pharmaceutical, medical diagnostics (including blood sugar and oximetry), food and agrochemical quality control, and combustion research, as well as cognitive neuroscience research. Wikipedia
OOS - Out of specification #
A specification is an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, or service. Should a material, product or service fail to meet one or more of the applicable specifications, it may be referred to as being out of specification. http://en.wikipedia.org/
OSS · Open Source Software #
software for which the underlying programming code is available to users so that they may read it, make changes to it, and build new versions of the software incorporating their changes. There are many types of Open Source Software, mainly differing in the licensing term under which altered copies of the source code must be redistributed. www.domainsmagazine.com
PLC - Programmable Logic Controller #
microprocessor-based industrial control system. It communicates with other process control components through data links. It is used in process control for simple switching tasks, PID control, complex data manipulation, arithmetic operations, timing and process and machine control. www.onesixsigma.com
QMS · Quality management system #
Quality management system. Such as ISO/IEC 17025
RSS · Rich Site Summary #
RDF Site Summary, or Rich Site Summary, or Really Simple Syndication – A lightweight XML format for distributing news headlines and other content on the Web (www.jisc.ac.uk) How does it work? A Web site can allow other sites to publish some of its content by creating an RSS document and registers the document with an RSS publisher. A web publisher can post a link to the rss feed so users can read the distributed content on his/her site (mason.gmu.edu)
SCADA - Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition #
(i) also System Control and Data Acquisition or Security, Control and Data Acquisition. A common process control application that collects data from sensors on the shop floor or in remote locations and sends them to a central computer for management and control. www.cxrlarus.com (ii) Software systems and algorithms used to provide real-time instructions to plant automation equipment such as programmable logic controllers (PLC). www.bridgefieldgroup.com
SDMS - Scientific Data Management System #
i) in contrast to Data Management (DM) definition and usage by commercial enterprises, Scientific Data Management (SDM) focuses and tailors DM techniques to scientific data resources management and adapts them to scientific research goals. www.cscs.ch. ii) many laboratories have invested in SDMS/ECM (Scientific Data Management System/Electronic Content Management) to help them manage the huge volumes of data that are created in their labs. An SDMS/ECM allows them to collect, organize and search through their vast data library. www.labtronics.com
SOA - service-oriented architecture #
a collection of services that communicate with each other. The services are self-contained and do not depend on the context or state of the other service. They work within a distributed systems architecture. www.dmreview.com
SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol #
a standard for exchanging XML-based messages over a computer network, normally using HTTP. SOAP forms the foundation layer of the web services stack, providing a basic messaging framework that more abstract layers can build on. en.wikipedia.org
SOP · Standard Operating Procedure #
documents that describe a specific method of accomplishing a task that is to be followed precisely the same way every time. www.madison.k12.wi.us
TQM - Total Quality Management #
i) a general process framework that grew out of the work of Deming in Japan after WWII. The framework is focused on specifying the processes necessary to ensure incremental process improvement. Unlike most process frameworks, this one also provides a large number of intellectual tools to be used during process improvement and it also defines some processes in considerable detail. pathfinderpeople.blogs.com/hslahman. ii) Total Quality Management. A comprehensive system of measuring the efficiency, effectiveness and adaptability of the total process. www.asresearch.com
UDDI #
XML-based protocol that provides a distributed directory that enables businesses to list themselves on the Internet and discover other services. Similar to a telephone number, businesses can list themselves by name, product, location, or the Web services they offer. www.reactivity.com
Wire frame model #
Traditionally used for drawings and CAD, e.g. The basic framework of a part model constructed of wires and surface parts (hannawestside.anderson5.net). In LIMS development projects, Bika analysts often build html wire frame models to communicate design principles to sponsors and future users. Their feedback is then used to improve the LIMS design
WSDL - Web Services Description Language #
an XML-formatted language used to describe a Web service's capabilities as collections of communication endpoints capable of exchanging messages. WSDL is an integral part of UDDI, an XML-based worldwide business registry. WSDL is the language that UDDI uses. WSDL was developed jointly by Microsoft and IBM. www.hta-bi.bfh.ch
WURFL · Wireless Universal Resource File #
part of a FOSS - Free and Open Source - community effort focused on the problem of presenting content on the wide variety of wireless devices. The WURFL itself is an XML configuration file which contains information about device capabilities and features for a variety of mobile devices. Device information is contributed by developers around the world and the WURFL is updated frequently reflecting new wireless devices coming on the market. Luca Passani is the driving force behind WURFL.

Methods

AAS - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy #
A spectroanalytical procedure for the qualitative and quantitative determination of chemical elements employing the absorption of optical radiation (light) by free atoms in the gaseous state. Wikipedia
AFS - Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy #
A type of electromagnetic spectroscopy (also called fluorometry or spectrofluorometry) which analyzes fluorescence from a sample. It involves using a beam of light, usually ultraviolet light, that excites the electrons in molecules of certain compounds and causes them to emit light of a lower energy, typically, but not necessarily, visible light. A complementary technique is absorption spectroscopy. Wikipeda
CFA - Continuous Flow Analysis #
Also known as Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA). Used in automatic analysers when a series of samples are continuously pumped into tubes along with appropriate reagents, separated by air bubbles, and passing through detectors for analysis. See animation at http://www.skalar.com/assets/flash/continuous.html
Charpy V-notch Test, Charpy Impact Test #
A standardized high strain-rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. This absorbed energy is a measure of a given material's notch toughness and acts as a tool to study temperature-dependent ductile-brittle transition. Wikipedia.org
Chemometrics #
i) The chemical discipline that uses mathematical, statistical and other methods employing formal logic to design or select optimal measurement procedures and experiments, and to provide maximum relevant chemical information by analyzing chemical data. D.L. Massart: Chemometrics: a textbook, Elsevier, NY,1988. ii) The science of extracting information from chemical systems by data-driven means. It is a highly interfacial discipline, using methods frequently employed in core data-analytic disciplines such as multivariate statistics, applied mathematics, and computer science, in order to address problems in chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, biology and chemical engineering. In this way, it mirrors several other interfacial ‘-metrics’ such as psychometrics and econometrics. Wikipedia.org
Cyclonic separation #
A method of removing particulates from an air, gas or liquid stream, without the use of filters, through vortex separation. Rotational effects and gravity are used to separate mixtures of solids and fluids. The method can also be used to separate fine droplets of liquid from a gaseous stream. Wikipedia.org
EDTA - Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid #
i) a complex molecule used medically to chelate metal ions in cases of lead or heavy metal poisoning. wordnet.princeton.edu. ii) acronym for ethylene diamine tetra acetate (C 10 H 16 N 2 O 8 ). This large organic compound binds to many different metal ions and prevents them from reacting with any other chemical that might be present in solution. ... www.chem.ubc.ca
Elution #
the process of extracting one material from another by washing with a solvent to remove adsorbed material from an adsorbent, as in washing of loaded ion-exchange resins to remove captured ions. http://wordnet.princeton.edu
FIA – Flow Injection Analysis #
microchemical technique to automate wet chemical methods. In a FIA system, a carrier solution and the chemical reagents are continuously pumped through tubes, mixing coils and finally through a flow cell in a detector. A small portion of the sample is injected into the carrier. The carrier merges with one or more reagents to produce a chemical reaction. The resulting colour change in the sample zone is measured in the detector. The time between injection and detection is typically 1 minute. The dispersion or dilution of the sample zone is controlled by the system components, i.e. injected volume, flow rates and length and diameter of the tubing. When the dispersed sample zone reaches the flow cell of the detector neither the chemical reaction nor the dispersion process must have reached completion or a steady state. Keeping identical conditions for both samples and standards makes evaluation and quantification reproducible and precise. www.foss.dk
GhostWipe #
A sturdy wiping material moistened with DI water that holds together even on the roughest wiping surfaces. In the lab, the GhostWipe readily and completely dissolves during the digestion process. This feature provides complete dispersion of analytes and uniform recoveries. There is no messy fibrous material to clog the sample uptake capillary or nebulizer. GhostWipes meet all ASTM Designation E1792 specifications for sampling materials for lead in surface dust. In addition, Beryllium by ASTM D7707 has been approved. Wipes are 15cm x 15cm for Lead Testing and 2 inches by 2.75 inches (5cm x 7cm) for Beryllium. Envexp.com
LoB - Limit of Blank #
The highest apparent analyte concentration expected to be found when replicates of a blank sample containing no analyte are tested. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
LoD - Limit of Detection #
The lowest analyte concentration likely to be reliably distinguished from the LoB and at which detection is feasible. LoD is determined by utilising both the measured LoB and test replicates of a sample known to contain a low concentration of analyte. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
LoQ - Limit of Quantitation #
he lowest concentration at which the analyte can not only be reliably detected but at which some Tpredefined goals for bias and imprecision are met. The LoQ may be equivalent to the LoD or it could be at a much higher concentration. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
PQL - Practical Quantitation Limits #
the lowest level of quantitation that can be reliably achieved within specified limits of precision and accuracy. www.mfe.govt.nz
QuEChERS #
i) the Quechers method is a streamlined approach that makes it easier and less expensive for analytical chemists to examine pesticide residues in food. The name is a portmanteau word formed from "Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe". Wikipedia. ii) QuEChERS (pronounced Catchers), an acronym for Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe, is a sample extraction and clean-up technique widely used for the analysis of multiple residues in hydrated agricultural products. Unitedchem.com
Raman spectroscopy #
a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system. It relies on inelastic scattering, or Raman scattering, of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or near ultraviolet range. The laser light interacts with molecular vibrations, phonons or other excitations in the system, resulting in the energy of the laser photons being shifted up or down. The shift in energy gives information about the vibrational modes in the system. Infrared spectroscopy yields similar, but complementary, information. Wikipedia.org
SFC - Supercritical Fluid Chromatography #
A form of normal phase chromatography that is used for the analysis and purification of low to moderate molecular weight, thermally labile molecules. It can also be used for the separation of chiral compounds. Principles are similar to those of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), however SFC typically utilizes carbon dioxide as the mobile phase; therefore the entire chromatographic flow path must be pressurized. Wikipedia
Sorbent tube #
The most widely used collection media for sampling hazardous gases and vapors in air, mostly as it relates to Industrial hygiene. They were developed by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for air quality testing of workers. Sorbent Tubes are available from SKC Ltd, Zefon International, Sigma-Aldrich/Supelco and Markes International. Sorbent tubes are typically made of glass and contain various types of solid adsorbent material (sorbents). Commonly used sorbents include activated charcoal, silica gel, and organic porous polymers such as Tenax and Amberlite XAD resins. Wikipedia.org
TCD - Thermal conductivity detector #
A number of detectors are used in gas chromatography. The most common are the flame ionization detector (FID) and the thermal conductivity detector (TCD). Both are sensitive to a wide range of components, and both work over a wide range of concentrations. While TCDs are essentially universal and can be used to detect any component other than the carrier gas (as long as their thermal conductivities are different from that of the carrier gas, at detector temperature), FIDs are sensitive primarily to hydrocarbons, and are more sensitive to them than TCD. However, an FID cannot detect water. Both detectors are also quite robust. Since TCD is non-destructive, it can be operated in-series before an FID (destructive), thus providing complementary detection of the same analytes. en.wikipedia.org
TOF, TOFMS - Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry #
a method of mass spectrometry in which an ion's mass-to-charge ratio is determined via a time measurement. Ions are accelerated by an electric field of known strength. This acceleration results in an ion having the same kinetic energy as any other ion that has the same charge. The velocity of the ion depends on the mass-to-charge ratio. The time that it subsequently takes for the particle to reach a detector at a known distance is measured. This time will depend on the mass-to-charge ratio of the particle (heavier particles reach lower speeds). From this time and the known experimental parameters one can find the mass-to-charge ratio of the ion. Wikipedia.org
UTS - Ultimate Tensile Strength #
The highest load applied in breaking a tensile test piece divided by the original cross- sectional area of the test piece. http://metals.about.com/; The maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before failing or breaking, the opposite of compressive strength. Some materials will break sharply, without deforming, in what is called a brittle failure. Others, which are more ductile, including most metals, will stretch some - and for rods or bars, shrink or neck at the point of maximum stress as that area is stretched out. The UTS is usually found by performing a tensile test and recording the stress versus strain; the highest point of the stress-strain curve is the UTS. It is dependent on factors such as the preparation of the specimen, the presence or otherwise of surface defects, and the temperature of the test environment and material. It is measured as force per unit area. For some non-homogeneous materials (or for assembled components) it can be reported just as a force or as a force per unit width. In the SI system, the unit is the pascal (Pa) (or a multiple thereof, often megapascals (MPa), using the mega- prefix); or, equivalently to pascals, newtons per square metre (N/m²). Wikipedia.org
XRD - X-Ray Diffraction #
A non-destructive analytical technique which reveals information about the crystallographic structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials and thin films. These techniques are based on observing the scattered intensity of an X-ray beam hitting a sample as a function of incident and scattered angle, polarization, and wavelength or energy. Wikipedia

Procedures

AES - Auger Electron Spectroscopy #
Auger (pronounced ~o-jay) electron spectroscopy is an electron spectroscopic method that uses a beam of electrons to knock electrons out of inner-shell orbitals. Auger electrons are ejected to conserve energy when electrons in higher shells fill the vacancy in the inner shell. These Auger electrons have energies characteristic of the emitting atom due to the characteristic energy-level structure of that element. elchem.kaist.ac.kr
Analyte #
the substance which a laboratory test aims to detect. In cholesterol testing, for example, the analyte is cholesterol. In genetic testing, the analyte could be, for example, a specific allele or genetic mutation. www.cs.uu.nl
Bray phosphorus test #
Bray "available" phosphorus test involves extraction of absorbed phosphorus with HCl and NH4F. Concentration of extracted phosphorus is determined by spectrophotometer. Bray phosphorus test is generally accepted as a probability indicator for phosphorus fertiliser response for pasture in higher rainfall areas. www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au
Colorimetry #
i) form of absorption spectroscopy in which a reagent that bonds with the species of interest is added to a liquid solution, resulting in a change in color of the solution. The method has been applied, for example, in the determination of the content of certain metals in atmospheric aerosols. amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/browse. ii) process of measuring the concentration of a known solution constituent by comparison with colors of standard solutions of that constituent. www.polytechnic.edu.na
ELISA - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay #
A sensitive technique for accurately determining specific molecules in a mixed sample. The amount of protein or other antigen in a given sample is determined by means of an enzyme-catalysed colour change, avoiding both the hazards and expense of radioactive techniques. www.fao.org. an assay that relies on an enzymatic conversion reaction and is used to detect the presence of specific substances such as enzymes or viruses or antibodies or bacteria. wordnet.princeton.edu. A positive ELISA test generally is confirmed by the Western Blot test. www.aidsinfobbs.org
Fehling's test #
Test for Reducing Sugars, Keto-Enol-Tautomerism, Copper-Tartrate-Complex . www.uni-regensburg.de
FID - Flame Ionization Detector #
a type of detector used in gas chromatography. See GC FID. The Flame Ionization Detector (FID) is one of the many methods by which to analyze materials coming off of gas chromatography column. The detection of organic compounds is most effectively done with flame ionization. Biochemical compounds such as proteins, nucleotides, and pharmaceuticals can be studied with flame ionization as well as other detectors, like thermal conductivity, thermionic, or electrolytic conductivity due to the presence of nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur atoms or because of the universality of the thermal conductivity detector. However, typically the biochemical compounds have a greater amount of carbon present than other elements. This means that a particular compound may be more easily detected using flame ionization over the other methods because of higher carbon concentration and also flame ionizations sensitivity. http://en.wikipedia.org
FTIR - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy #
FTIR measures the absorption caused by infrared active molecules. This technique involves generation of a light beam over a range of wavelengths in the near-IR portion of the spectrum. The beam passes through a parcel of atmosphere in which chemical species absorb IR radiation at characteristic wavelengths. The beam is reflected directly back on itself to the receiver/transmitter. The received spectrum is compared to a library spectrum for each chemical compound of interest so that the compounds present can be identified and qualified. Data analysis is conducted using a PC and a software package. www.aboutremediation.com
GC - Gas chromatography #
a method for separating substances in a mixture and measuring the relative quantities of substances. It is a useful technique for substances that do not decompose at high temperatures and when a very small quantity of sample is available. www.polymicro.com
GC FID - Gas Chromatograph(y) Flame Ionization Detector #
n GC/FID, the FID or flame ionization detector detects analytes by measuring an electrical current generated by electrons from burning carbon particles in the sample. The flame ionization detector (FID) is a non-selective detector used in conjunction with gas chromatography. Because it is non-selective, there is a potential for many non-target compounds present in samples to interfere with this analysis and for poor resolution especially in complex samples. The FID works by directing the gas phase output from the column into a hydrogen flame. A voltage of 100-200V is applied between the flame and an electrode located away from the flame. The increased current due to electrons emitted by burning carbon particles is then measured. Although the signal current is very small (the ionization efficiency is only 0.0015%) the noise level is also very small (<10-13 amp) and with a well-optimized system, sensitivities of 5 x 10-12 g/ml for n-heptane at a signal/noise ratio of 2 can be easily realized. Except for a very few organic compounds (e.g. carbon monoxide, etc.) the FID detects all carbon containing compounds. The detector also has an extremely wide linear dynamic range that extends over, at least five orders of magnitude with a response index between 0.98-1.02. http://www.chromatography-online.org/
GCP - Good Clinical Practices #
the practices, responsibilities and actions of the sponsor, investigator, and monitor, that must be followed in any clinical trial to ensure the safety of study participants and the quality of the data. www.painceptor.com
GLP · Good Laboratory Practice #
i) a collection of detailed standards that mandate specific operating procedures that covers basic research, data acquisition and reporting. Also included are laboratory design and utilisation requirements enforced by regulatory agencies. www.sciteclabs.com ii) Good Laboratory Practice, international regulations that must be observed to ensure high quality experimental standards and reliable data. www.epidauros.com
GxP - Good Practice #
A general term for Good Practice quality guidelines and regulations. These guidelines are used in many fields, including the pharmaceutical and food industries. The titles of these good practice guidelines usually begin with "Good" and end in "Practice", with the specific practice descriptor in between. GxP represents the abbreviations of these titles, where x (a common symbol for a variable) represents the specific descriptor. A "c" or "C" is sometimes added to the front of the acroynm. The preceding "c" stands for "current." For example, cGMP is an acronym for "current Good Manufacturing Practices." cGMP is the most well known example of a GxP. The term GxP is only used in a casual manner, to refer in a general way to a collection of quality guidelines. Wikipedia
HPLC - High Performance Liquid Chromatography #
a family of analytical chemistry techniques for the separation of mixtures. It involves passing the sample, a mixture which contains the analyte, in the "mobile phase", often in a stream of solvent, through the "stationary phase." The stationary phase retards the passage of the components of the sample. When components pass through the system at different rates they become separated in time, like runners in a marathon. ... en.wikipedia.org
Hydrolysis #
[Greek, hydro= water + Iysis= breaking] Breaking the bond between two building blocks by adding a water molecule, reversing the dehydration-condensation reaction. embryology. med.unsw.edu.au. The splitting of a compound into fragments by the addition of water, the hydroxyl group being incorporated in one fragment and the hydrogen atom in the other. www.shodor.org
IC · Ion Chromatography #
technique for separating chemicals that are ionic. Chemicals can then be identified or quantitated. Typically used for inorganic anions such as sulfate, phosphate, or chloride. www.chemir.com
ICP - Inductively Coupled Plasma #
(i) ICP, combined with optical emission spectrometry, is a commonly used technique to determine chemical analysis of master alloys. www.metallurgaluminium.com (ii) a high temperature conductive gaseous mixture, contained and energized by a radio frequency electromagnetic field. Often used in AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) as a source of energy for the generation of emission spectra from elements. www.ionsigtech.com
Kjeldahl method #
a method for the quantitative determination of nitrogen in chemical substances developed by Johan Kjeldahl. The method as described in Julius Cohen's Practical Organic Chemistry of 1910 consists of heating a substance with sulfuric acid which oxidizes nitrogen to ammonium sulfate. In this step potassium sulfate is added in order to increase the boiling point of the medium from 337°C to 373°C. Chemical decomposition of the sample is complete when the medium has become clear and colorless (initially very dark). The solution is then distilled with sodium hydroxide added in small quantities, which converts the ammonium salt to ammonia. The end of the condenser is dipped into a solution of hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid of precisely known concentration. The ammonia reacts with the acid and the remainder of the acid is then titrated with a sodium carbonate solution with a methyl orange PH indicator. In modern times the Kjeldahl method is largely automated and makes use of specific catalysts like mercury oxide or copper sulfate to speed up the decomposition. en.wikipedia.org
Laminar flow cabinet #
A laminar flow cabinet creates a particle-free working environment by taking air through a filtration system and exhausting it across a work surface in a laminar or unidirectional air stream. Commonly, the filtration system compromises of a pre-filter and a HEPA filter. Because the air within the cabinet does not contain any airborne particles, it is also sterile. The laminar flow cabinet is enclosed on the sides and kept under constant positive pressure in order to prevent the infiltration of contaminated room air. The most common application of the laminar flow cabinet is to provide an individual clean air environment for small items not requiring a full-size cleanroom. In the laboratory, individual laminar flow cabinets are commonly used for specialized work such as spin coating to eliminate airborne contamination that would otherwise interfere with work processes. www.polymer-physics.uwaterloo.ca
LC - Liquid chromatography #
an analytical chromatographic technique that is useful for separating ions or molecules that are dissolved in a solvent. If the sample solution is in contact with a second solid or liquid phase, the different solutes will interact with the other phase to differing degrees due to differences in adsorption, ion-exchange, partitioning, or size. These differences allow the mixture components to be separated from each other by using these differences to determine the transit time of the solutes through a column. www.polymicro.com
MS · Mass spectrometer #
instrument used to measure the masses of molecules and atoms by volatilizing and then ionizing them. The ions are then separated magnetically according to their mass-to-charge ratio. www4.nau.edu
Pharmacopoeia #
authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction. They differ from formularies in that they are far more complete; formularies simply list drugs or collections of formulas for the compounding of medicinal preparations. However, sometimes the terms "pharmacopoeia" and "formulary" are used interchangeably. In addition to serving as current reference sources, pharmacopoeias and formularies provide an historical record of pharmacy practice, drug use, and drug availability. www.nlm.nih.gov
Potentiometric #
the apparent equivalence point of a titration at which a relatively large potential change is observed. www.flw.com
Pycnometer or Pyknometer #
a device used for measuring fluid density, also known as a specific gravity bottle. Uses an appropriate working fluid such as water or mercury to find a volume for use in Archimedes' principle. Used in ISO standard: ISO 1183-1:2004. www.wikipedia.org
Reducing Sugar #
A reducing sugar is a type of sugar with a ketone or aldehyde group. This allows the sugar to act as a reducing agent, for example in the Maillard reaction. en.wikipedia.org
RSD - Relative Standard Deviation #
A measure of the reproducibility of an analysis. This is determined by dividing the standard deviation (of a sample rather than the population) by the mean for the same set and then multiplying by 100%. www.ne-wea.org
SOP · Standard Operating Procedure #
documents that describe a specific method of accomplishing a task that is to be followed precisely the same way every time. www.madison.k12.wi.us
Standardisation (standardization) #
a process of equalizing electrode potentials in one standardizing solution (buffer) so that potentials developed in unknown solutions can be converted to pH values. www.flw.com
TBN - Total Base Number #
Total Base Number, a measure of the amount of basic additives in a lubricant. High TBN is desirable in a crankcase oil to control corrosive engine wear from the acids of combustion. May be measured by ASTM test methods D 664 (Total Base Number) or D 2896 (Alkalinity Value). These methods may give different results for a given oil. www.dcpetroleum.com
Tribology #
i) the process of monitoring the condition of equipment through the analysis of properties of its lubricating and other oils. Typically conducted through the measurement of particulates in the oil, or the measurement of the chemical composition of the oil (Spectographic Oil Analysis). Commonly used for monitoring the condition of large gearboxes, engines and transformers, amongst other applications. www.maintenanceresources.com. ii) derived from the Greek tribos meaning I rub. Formally defined, it is the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion and all practices related thereto. In other words, it is the science and technology of friction, lubrication, and wear. The study of tribology is perhaps most commonly applied in bearing design - but extends into other unlikely areas including hair care products such as conditioners. en.wikipedia.org
Turbidity #
The light-scattering property associated with suspended particles in a liquid. A turbid solution appears cloudy. www.ne-wea.org
UPLC - Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography #
see HPLC - High-performance liquid chromatography. By using smaller particles, speed and peak capacity (number of peaks resolved per unit time in gradient separations) can be extended to new limits, termed Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography, or UPLC. The technology takes full advantage of chromatographic principles to run separations using columns packed with smaller particles and/or higher flow rates for increased speed, with superior resolution and sensitivity. www.lcgcmag.com
UV/Vis Spectroscopy #
Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry involves the spectroscopy of photons and spectrophotometry. It uses light in the visible and adjacent near ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) ranges. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UV-Visible_spectroscopy
XRFS - X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy #
a spectroscopic technique that is commonly used with solids, in which X-rays are used to excite a sample and generate secondary X-rays. The X-rays broadcast into the sample by X-ray fluorescence spectrometers eject inner-shell electrons. Outer-shell electrons take the place of the ejected electrons and emit photons in the process. The wavelength of the photons depends on the energy difference between the outer-shell and inner-shell electron orbitals. The amount of X-ray fluorescence is very sample dependent and quantitative analysis requires calibration with standards that are similar to the sample matrix. http://test-equipment.globalspec.com

Project management

Alpha Testing #
(i) Testing conducted internally by the manufacturer, alpha testing takes a new product through a protocol of testing procedures to verify product functionality and capability. www.wrightcolorgraphics.com (ii) In-house testing of a software product. www.eabnet.org.uk
AOP - Aspect-oriented programming #
Aspect-oriented software development (AOSD) is an emerging software development technology that seeks new modularizations of software systems in order to isolate secondary or supporting functions from the main program's business logic. AOSD allows multiple concerns to be expressed separately and automatically unified into working systems. Wikipedia
Beta testing #
(i) testing conducted at one or more customer sites by the end-user of a delivered software product or system. This is usually a "friendly" user and the testing is conducted before general release for distribution. www.stsc.hill.af.mil (ii) User testing of a completed information system using real data in the real user environment. www.cbu.edu
Beta version #
(i) a product in that is in its final stages of testing. Often, especially with FOSS, a beta version of a product (or beta product), will be made available to the public for general use and may contain minor bugs. This is done so that the product can be tested on a large-scale in the field, and allow people to start using new tools as soon as possible. www.cpsr-peru.org (ii) In software engineering, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. Each major version of a product usually goes through a stage when new features are added (alpha stage), then a stage when it is actively debugged (beta stage), and finally a stage when all important bugs have been removed (stable stage). Intermediate stages may also be recognized. en.wikipedia.org
BIRT - Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools #
An open source software project that provides reporting and business intelligence capabilities for rich client and web applications, especially those based on Java and Java EE. BIRT is a top level software project within the Eclipse Foundation, an independent not-for-profit consortium of software industry vendors and an open source community. The project's stated goals are to address a wide range of reporting needs within a typical application,[1] ranging from operational or enterprise reporting to multi-dimensional online analytical processing (OLAP). Initially, the project has focused on and delivered capabilities that allow application developers to easily design and integrate reports into applications. Wikipedia
Change Control #
The review, approval/disapproval, implementation, tracking, closure, and status reporting of proposed changes to an item. cio.osu.edu
Contingency Plan #
An alternative for action if things don't go as planned or if an expected result fails to materialize.
CPAR - Corrective and Preventive Action Request #
a system to deal with quality issues and manage actions taken to resolve them all within the proven ISO framework. www.intimedata.co.za
ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning #
an industry term for the broad set of activities supported by multi-module application software that help a manufacturer or other business manage the important parts of its business, including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting with suppliers, providing customer service, and tracking orders. www.redfernservices.com
ERP - Enterprise Resource Plan #
software that integrates departments and functions across a company into one computer system. ERP runs off a single database, enabling various departments to share information and communicate with each other. ERP systems comprise function-specific modules designed to interact with the other modules, eg Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable, Purchasing, etc. www.theaccountspayablenetwork.com
ETL - Extract, Transform, Load #
A process in database usage and especially in data warehousing that involves: Extracting data from outside sources, Transforming it to fit operational needs, which can include quality levels & Loading it into the end target database or warehouse. Wikipedia
IDE - Integrated Development Environment #
en.wiktionary.org/wiki/IDE
MTA - Material Transfer Agreement #
A contract that governs the transfer of tangible research materials between two organizations, when the recipient intends to use it for his or her own research purposes. The MTA defines the rights of the provider and the recipient with respect to the materials and any derivatives. Biological materials, such as reagents, cell lines, plasmids, and vectors, are the most frequently transferred materials, but MTAs may also be used for other types of materials, such as chemical compounds and even some types of software. Three types of MTAs are most common at academic institutions: transfer between academic or research institutions, transfer from academia to industry, and transfer from industry to academia. Each call for different terms and conditions. Berkeley.edu
ORM - Object-relational mapping #
A programming technique for converting data between incompatible type systems in object-oriented programming languages. This creates, in effect, a "virtual object database" that can be used from within the programming language. Wikipedia
PERT - Program Evaluation and Review Technique #
a project management technique for determining how much time a project needs before it is completed. each activity is assigned a best, worst, and most probable completion time estimate. These estimates are used to determine the average completion time. The average times are used to figure the critical path and the standard deviation of completion times for the entire project. cio.osu.edu
Phase Gate #
The point at the end of a project phase where project performance is measured and a decision is made whether the project can move to the next phase or whether the project should be killed. cio.osu.edu
PI - Principal Investigator #
The lead scientist or engineer for a particular well-defined science or research project, such as a laboratory study or clinical trial. It is often used as a synonym for "head of the laboratory" or "research group leader". In the context of USA federal funding from agencies such as the NIH or the NSF, the PI is the person who takes direct responsibility for completion of a funded project, directing the research and reporting directly to the funding agency. For small projects the PI is typically the person who conceived of the investigation, but for larger projects the PI may be selected by a team to obtain the best strategic advantage for the project. Wikipedia.org
Project Charter / Definition #
A document consisting of a mission statement, including background, purpose, and benefits, a goal, objectives, scope, assumptions and constraints. A Project Charter clearly documents project definition in order to bring a project team into necessary agreementcio.osu.edu
RBS - Resource Breakdown Structure #
in project management, the Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS) is a standardized list of personnel resources related by function and arranged in a hierarchical structure. The Resource Breakdown Structure standardizes the Departments personnel resources to facilitate planning and controlling of project work. It defines assignable resources such as personnel, from a functional point of view; it identifies "who" is doing the work. The total resources define the Top Level, and each subsequent level is a subset of the resource category (or level) above it. Each descending (lower) level represents an increasingly detailed description of the resource until small enough to be used in conjunction with the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to allow the work to be planned, monitored and controlled. en.wikipedia.org
Risk #
the cumulative effect of the chances of uncertain occurrences, which will adversely affect project objectives. It is the degree of exposure to negative events and their probable consequences. Project risk is characterized by three risk factors namely: risk event, risk probability and the amount at stake. Risk is the opposite of opportunity. cio.osu.edu
SCM - Software Configuration Management #
i) The software engineering task of tracking and controlling changes in the software. Configuration management practices include revision control and the establishment of baselines. Wikipedia. ii)a discipline to ensure that the configuration of an item (and its components) is known and documented and that changes are controlled and tracked. www.cryer.co.uk
Scope creep #
(i) the tendency of a project to include more tasks or to implement more systems than originally specified, which often leads to higher than planned project costs and an extension of the initial implementation date. bridgefieldgroup.com. (ii) Scope creep is the slow and continuous expansion of the scope or a project, such as data type or routine, resulting in a broad, unfocused, and unmanageable scope and usually leads to cost-overruns, missed deadlines, and loss of original goals. www.tjiss.net
Sponsor #
Individual or body for whom the project is undertaken and who is the primary risk taker. cio.osu.edu
SRS - Software Requirements Specification #
Software Requirements Specification
TOR - Terms of Reference #
Definition of the requirements and objectives of the services requested under the terms of a contract or tender, including, where necessary, the methods and means to be used and/or results to be achieved. www.projectmanagement.ro
URS - User Requirement Specifications #
The User Requirement Specification (URS) specifies the requirements of the user for individual aspects of the facility, equipment, and systems in terms of function, throughput, operability, and applicable standards, what functions will be carried out, the data on which the system will operate, and the operating environment. In practise there are both Functional requirements and Non-functional requirements. Non-functional requirements include constraints (eg project time scale) and what deliverables will be provided by the system ( documentation, training, testing, tools etc). The URS is the stage at which the user's requirements are defined in sufficiently precise detail to allow suppliers to produce tenders for the work. This may involve a feasibility study. www.urswriter.com
WBS - Work Breakdown Structure #
A task-oriented detailed hierarchical breakdown, which defines the work packages and tasks at a very low level. cio.osu.edu
 

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